该项目在哥斯达黎加进行，采用了一款名为Black Swift S2的小型无人机系统，可通过无人机飞越活火山附近森林冠层，捕获空中的二氧化碳含量来测量数据，从而更准确地测量存在于从通风口、包括被树冠遮蔽的火山范围内释放的气体化合物，以帮助量化火山的生命周期。
Monitoring volcanic gas data with modern sensor technology is crucial to understanding the causes of volcanic eruptions. But for scientists, being close to a volcano can be dangerous work and poses logistical challenges. Currently, with the help of unmanned aerial vehicle technology, foreign researchers have been able to deploy detection devices efficiently, not only minimizing risks, but also improving the efficiency of sensor data collection. Here are two related application cases.
The university of Bristol said on September 7, 2018 that a team of researchers at the university of Bristol has developed a lightweight volcano monitoring device that can work continuously in the harsh conditions of a volcano.
The new device, called dragon's egg, is small and lightweight, equipped with sensors that can monitor temperature, humidity, vibrations and a variety of toxic gases in real time. Because the device is weight-controlled, researchers can place it directly near the crater using drones. The device can transmit the collected data back to remote workstations for assessment of volcanic hazards.
What's more, the device is usually in a power-saving state until one of the special detectors senses the vibrations of volcanic activity and wakes up the other detectors and sensors, bringing the whole thing into full operation. The special detectors, which require little energy, have been tested on a volcano in Italy.
The team said the device still needs to be developed and could play a role in future scenarios such as glacier observations and safety inspections of nuclear waste storage facilities.
Each year, about 50 to 60 active volcanoes erupt in the world, causing health and economic risks for 1 billion people, including climate and aviation hazards. For example, in late January 2018, the mayon volcano in the Philippines erupted and more than 70,000 people were evacuated. This important notice is the monitoring department based on the accident warning and timely notification. Increased emissions of carbon dioxide are one of the earliest indicators that volcanoes are recovering and may erupt, but on many volcanoes, especially in the tropics, it is difficult to put these instruments on volcanoes.
For a better understanding of volcanic activity and the consequences of, improve the planning and early warning ability of volcanic eruption, in January 2018, the United States national aeronautics and space administration (NASA) laboratory and enterprise cooperation, hope through the gas measuring and monitoring the volcano eruption, a better understanding of volcanic activity and its consequences, and improve the planning and early warning ability of volcanic eruption.
The project conducted in costa rica, adopted a small unmanned aircraft system, called Black Swift S2 by drones flying over active volcano near the forest canopy, capture the carbon dioxide content of the air to measure data, so as to more accurately measure exists in from within the scope of volcanic vents, including the crown cover releasing gas compounds, to help quantify the life cycle of the volcano.
The drone is equipped with sensors that measure carbon dioxide and water vapor as the volcano erupts. In the future, the uas will also include sensors to measure methane, hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide, turbidimeters to assess the size and distribution of volcanic particles, and atmospheric probes to analyze pressure, temperature, humidity and three-dimensional wind direction.
Studies have shown that levels of carbon dioxide emissions can be used to measure and predict the risk of volcanic eruptions. Increased concentrations of gases released into the atmosphere from volcanic vents and fissures, vents, and diffused flanks indicate a higher probability of eruptions. By studying the composition of the gas mixture and monitoring its fluctuations, scientists have found they can better predict the likelihood of a volcanic eruption.